Vietnam Journal of Forest Science Number 2-2014

Vietnam Journal of Forest Science Number 2-2014

1

Đổi mới công tác nghiên cứu và chuyển giao giống cây
lâm nghiệp phục vụ tái cơ cấu ngành

PGS.TS. Võ Đại Hải

Innovation of forest tree improvement to serve the scheme of forest restructuring

2

Nghiên cứu một số đặc điểm cấu trúc và tính đa dạng sinh học kiểu rừng kín thường xanh hỗn giao cây lá rộng, cây lá kim tại Vườn Quốc gia Bidoup – Núi Bà

Nguyễn Trọng Bình

Research on forest structure characteristics and biodiversity of closed evergreen mixed broad and needle leaf forest type in Bidoup – Nui Ba National Park

3

Nghiên cứu nhân giống vô tính cây Cóc hành, Trôm phục vụ trồng rừng trên đất cát vùng khô hạn

Phạm Thế Dũng

Vegetative propagation of Azadirachta ninh thuan and Sterculia to serve plantation on sandy soil in dry regions

4

Khả năng cải thiện về khối lượng riêng và hàm lượng cellulose của Keo lá liềm trong khảo nghiệm hậu thế thế hệ 1 tại Cam Lộ, Quảng Trị

Phạm Xuân Đỉnh,
Phí Hồng Hải,
Nguyễn Hoàng Nghĩa,
La Ánh Dương,
Nguyễn Quốc Toản và Dương Hồng Quân

Genetic control on wood density and cellulose content of Acacia crassicarpa in the first – generation progeny test at Cam Lo – Quang Tri

5

Kết quả nghiên cứu bước đầu về ảnh hưởng của thành phần ruột bầu và ánh sáng đến sinh trưởng cây con Mỏ chim giai đoạn vườn ươm

Nguyễn Việt Cường, Nguyễn Minh Ngọc,
Phạm Đức Tuấn

Effect of fertilizer and rate of light cover on growth of Cleidion spiciflorum seedlings in nursery

6

Nghiên cứu ảnh hưởng của phân bón đến sinh trưởng của rừng trồng keo lai (Acacia mangium ´ Acacia auriculiformis) tại Công ty Lâm nghiệp Tam Thanh –
Phú Thọ

Phạm Duy Long,
Luyện Thị Minh Hiếu

Study on influences of fertilizer to growth of Acacia hybrid plantation in Tam Thanh Forestry Company – Phu Tho province

7

Micromorphological study
on the leaf epidermis of Schizostachyum nees
from Vietnam

Tran Van Tien,
Nguyen Hoang Nghia
and Nianhe Xia

Đặc điểm hình thái tế bào biểu bì chi Nứa ở Việt Nam

8

Một số đặc điểm lâm học của cây Mun (Diospyros mun A.Chev. Ex Lecomte)
ở Vườn Quốc gia Cúc Phương

Ngô Văn Nhương

Some silvicultural characteristics of Diospyros mun A.Chev. ex Lecomte in Cuc Phuong National Park

9

Nghiên cứu khả năng lưu trữ các bon của rừng Khộp tại Tây Nguyên

Vũ Đức Quỳnh,
Võ Đại Hải

Study on carbon storage ability of dry Dipterocarp forest in Central Highlands in Vietnam

10

Sinh khối và giá trị năng lượng rừng Tràm ở Long An

Phạm Thế Dũng,
Vũ Đình Hưởng

Biomass and calorific of Melaleuca plantation in Long An

11

Khả năng giữ nước, bốc và thoát hơi nước của rừng trồng Cao su (Hevea brasiliensis)
ở vùng Bắc Trung bộ

Trương Tất Đơ,
Vương Văn Quỳnh, Phùng Văn Khoa

Water holding capacity, vaporization and transpiration of rubber plantation (Hevea brasiliensis) in North Central region

12

Thành phần loài và hiện trạng bảo tồn chi Đỗ quyên (Rhododendron L.) ở Lâm Đồng

Nông Văn Duy,
Trần Thái Vinh,
Vũ Kim Công,
Quách Văn Hợi,
Đặng Thị Thắm,
Nguyễn Thị Huyền,
Trần Văn Tiến
và Ngô Sỹ Long

A synopsis and consevation status of the genus Rhododendron L. in Lam Dong province

13

Ứng dụng kỹ thuật phân loại ảnh hướng đối tượng nhằm phân loại trạng thái rừng theo Thông tư số 34

Nguyễn Văn Thị,
Trần Quang Bảo

Applying object – base imagery classification technique to classify forest status based on circular No.34

 TC so2-2014
 

 

 

Keyword: Forest tree improvement, achievement, stategy of research and development, forest restructuring

 

Innovation of forest tree improvement to serve the scheme of forest restructuring

PGS.TS. Võ Đại Hải
Giám đốc Viện Khoa học Lâm nghiệp Việt Nam

Forest tree improvement pays an important role in intensive plantations. For many years ago, significant achievements of forest tree improvement in Vietnam were as follow: (1) Some tree species with promising provenances were selected for some main ecological regions; (2) Breeding strategy of each promissing species was set up to improve the MAI of plantations and quality of end products. (3) Breeding populations, seed orchards, seed production areas, Hedge orchards and gene banks were established for some main planting species to supply the high quality seeds for plantation programs and genetic materials for further breeding programs; Application of biotechnology in identify of clone, outcrossing rate, genetic diversity of breeding population and use of DNA maker were implemented; Vegetative propagation by cutting and tisue culture were successfully studied and then the techniques and original germplasms were transferred to production units. Usefull germplasms were Acacia and Eucalyptus clones and hybrid clones for low land and highland areas, dry – zone acacias for dry sandy soil, Melaleuca species for waterlogged sulphate acid soils and clones of Pinus merkusii with high resin yield.

However forest tree improvement still did not meet the large requirement from production units, such as few approved germplasms tranferred to production units and lack of propagation populations and management of germplasms in provincial level. To serve the Scheme of Forest Restructuring, the forest tree improvement must implement as a linkage model including quantitative genetics, molarcular genetics, wood science, silviculture and tree pathology. Priorities of breakthrough researchs should be focused on selection, directional pollination, creation of polyploid and trippoid germplasms of main planting species, selection of suitable germplasms for each major areas and end – use products, and harsh environment and disease resistance. Results from researchs will be transferred as soon as possible by cooperating with forest extention services. Application of new technologies, such as DNA marker, gene transfer, creation of artificial embryos, stimulation of early flowering and mini – cutting, will encourage for increase of breeding effect and to shorten breeding cycles. Estabilishment of high quality seed production areas, seed orchards, hedge orchards, seed store and gene bank in major areas of plantations will be implemented in next few years for increase of supply of good seeds and germplasms to production units, research, gene conservation as well as international exchange of genetic materials.

 

 

Key words: Bidoup –
Nui Ba National Park, biodiversity
Research on forest structure characteristics and biodiversity of closed evergreen mixed broad and needle leaf forest type in Bidoup – Nui Ba National Park

Nguyễn Trọng Bình
Khoa Lâm học – Trường Đại học Lâm nghiệp Việt Nam

Bidoup – Nui Ba National Park is one of the four national biodiversity centers of Vietnam and the place contenting significantly scientific value. Tree species composition ranged from 36 – 50 species and there were more than 4 species that participated in composition formula to creat many different dominances following height belt. With having the average density of 203 trees per plot, the distribution of tree number and diameter (N/D1.3) conformed to decreased distribution rule; meanwhile, the distribution of N/Hvn did not conform any researched rules. Biodiversity in the region was considered high with 61 species were recorded in the total of 1,833 individual trees belonging to 27 families and many different life forms. Regeneration trees had some primarily species engaged in compostion formula such as: Castanopsis echidnocarpa, Symplocos racemosa, Rhododendron klossii, Eriobotrya angustissima and Craibiodemdron heryi. Average density of tree regeneration was 20.516 trees perha and divided into 4 height classes with the largest proportion (accounting for nearly 40%) at the height class of 1 – 2m. Natural regeneration was influenced sigfinicantly by the group factors of shrubs, vegetation, and terrian while the cover rate had negligible impact.

 

 

 

Keywords: Cutting, vegetative propagation, dry region

 

Vegetative propagation of Azadirachta ninh thuan and Sterculia to serve plantation on sandy soil in dry regions

Phạm Thế Dũng
Viện Khoa học Lâm nghiệp Nam bộ

The vegetative propagation of Azadirachta ninh thuan and Sterculia will supply materials for re – planting on sandy soil in dry regions, reduce the cost of afforestation and surmount difficulty from seed store of these species because of high oil and resin content in the seeds. This paper introduced some of research results about cutting techniques of both species including: selection of nursery bed, cutting’s quality and treating with stimulant. The results show that sandy bed using is better than sandy : ash (rate 1 : 1) bed for cutting, because it’s rooted rate is 29% to compare 22% and meristem rate is 33.3% to compare 25%, even the long of roots is better. The top of branches for cutting and IBA (500ppm) stimulant are suitable for Azadirachta ninh thuan propagation, because rooted rate is 28% (T2G1) to compare 16.7% (T1G1) while NZM is good stimulant for cutting of Sterculia and easy to buy in market.

 

 

Keywords: Acacia crassicarpa, progeny test, heristablity, wood density, cellulose content

Genetic control on wood density and cellulose content of Acacia crassicarpa in the first – generation progeny test at Cam Lo – Quang Tri

Phạm Xuân Đỉnh1, Phí Hồng Hải2, Nguyễn Hoàng Nghĩa2,
La Ánh D
ương2, Nguyễn Quốc Toản3 và Dương Hồng Quân3
1Trung tâm Khoa học Lâm nghiệp Bắc Trung Bộ – Viện Khoa học Lâm nghiệp Việt Nam
2 Viện Khoa học Lâm nghiệp Việt Nam
3 Viện Nghiên cứu Giống và CNSH Lâm nghiệp

 

This research on genetic control on growth, stem straightness, wood density and cellulose content of Acacia crassicarpa was implemented in the first – generation progeny test at Cam Lo, Quang Tri. The results showed that at age of 10 year old, growth traits and stem straightness, wood density and cellulose content were significant difference between families (Fpr. < 0.001), but not significantly between provenances in the Cam Lo test. Narrow – sense heristablities of growth traits and stem straightness were low – medium values (ranged from 0.19 to 0.24). Meanwhile, the heristablities of wood density and cellulose content were higher and ranged from 0.39 to 0.74. Selection of 10% of the families resulted in gain varying from 2.0 to 5.0% for growth traits and 3.5 – 13.5% for wood density and cellulose content. Because of negative, low and non – significant correlations between growth traits and wood properties (ra and rp= – 0.04÷ – 0.14), selection of families with high growth traits as well as high wood density and cellulose content could be practically. Our results also improved that two families (numberred 7 and 79) performed high growth rate, high wood density and cellulose content. Therefore, they should be deployed in the future commercial plantations.

The genotypic and phenotypic correlations between wood density and cellulose content were high (0.73÷0.89), so using wood density as selection traits would be an indirect trait in improvement of cellulose content of A. crassicarpa. Similarly, strong and significant correlations between wood density in heartwood and sapwood (0.72÷0.90) indicated that juvenile wood density is a good genetic indicator of this trait in older trees.

 

 

Keywords: Cleidion spiciflorum species, tube – inner component, rate of light cover.

 

 

Effect of fertilizer and rate of light cover on growth of Cleidion spiciflorum seedlings in nursery

Nguyễn Việt Cường1, Nguyễn Minh Ngọc1, Phạm Đức Tuấn2
1
Viện Nghiên cứu Giống và Công nghệ Sinh học Lâm nghiệp
2Viện Nghiên cứu và Phát triển Công nghệ Nông Lâm nghiệp Thành Tây

The article presents initial results on producing seedling of Cleidion spiciflorum species, including: tube – inner component and rate of light cover for producing seedling in three months stage. The research results show that: (1) Cleidion spiciflorum seedlings are rather discerning to decomposed muck. 10% decomposed muck need to be in tube – inner component, so it is good result for seedling growth. (2) Cleidion spiciflorum species are light demander. However, in four months stage the rate of light cover should be 25% for seedlings.

 

 

 


 

Key words: Acacia hybrid, fertilizer, growth, Tam Thanh Forestry Company.

Study on influences of fertilizer to growth of Acacia hybrid plantation in Tam Thanh Forestry Company – Phu Tho province

Phạm Duy Long1,Luyện Thị Minh Hiếu2
1Trung tâm Nghiên cứu Bảo vệ rừng
2Cao đẳng Nông nghiệp và PTNT Bắc bộ

Study on influences of fertilizer to growth capacity and productivity of Acacia hybrid plantation in Tam Thanh forestry company, Phu Tho province shown that controled experiment (non fertilizer) has the highest living rate in the first year and the fourth year with living rate is respectively 92,6% and 90,6%. While, living rate in experiments having NPK fertilizer only get from 82,6% to 90,6%. This result has caused by fertilizing so such NPK fertilizer leading to death a number of Acacia hybrid. Growing capacity of Acacia hybrid in the first experiment fertilizing 100g NPK + 400g Song Gianh organic microbial fertilizer and the second experiment fertilizing 500g Song Gianh organic microbial fertilizer have been the best effect to diameter growth at the fourth year with average diameter (10,82 centimeter); the first experiment which fertilize 300g NPK and the second experiment fertilizing 100g NPK + 400 Song Gianh organic microbial fertilizer have been the best effect to height growth at four year with average heigh (10,52 meter). Base on real productivity, at the fourth year, the second experiment fertilizing 100g NPK + 400g and the third experiment fertilizing 500g Song Gianh organic microbial fertilizer have been the most significant productivity, reach to over 18,9m3 perha per year, it is about 22% to 29% higher than controled experiment.

 

 

Keywords: Hairs – microhairs, scanning electron microscopy, stomata, Schizostachyum.

MICROMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE LEAF EPIDERMIS OF Schizostachyum nees FROM VIETNAM

Tran Van Tien1, Nguyen Hoang Nghia2 and Nianhe Xia3
1
Da Lat University
2Vietnamese Academy of Forest Sciences
3South China Botanical Garden

The foliage leaf epidermis of 13 Schizostachyum species from Vietnam was investigated by using scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that hairs – microhairs commonly seen and consist of three types such as long hairs, geniculate hairs, and spines hairs; the stomata of all species on the lower epidermis are larger, elliptical in shape and arranged in 2 – 5 rows on each side of a vein, each stoma covers finger – like protuberances (papillae) which come forth from the epidermal cells next to the epidermal cells, incline towards the center of stoma. However, the stomata on the lower epidermis covers finger – like protuberances and hairs – microhairs between leaf blades of different species. These characters were of taxonomic significance at the specific species level.

 

 


Keywords: Diospyros mun A.Chev. ex Lecomte, silvicultural characteristics, Cuc Phuong National Park.

 

Some silvicultural characteristics of Diospyros mun A.Chev. ex Lecomte in Cuc Phuong National Park

Ngô Văn Nhương
Sở Khoa học và Công nghệ Ninh Bình

Diospyros mun A.Chev. ex Lecomte a large timber species, which has high economic and biological value. In Vietnam’s Red Book, it is endangered at upcoming and in the World Red Book, it is placed on the critically endangered, should be preserved. Research results silvicutural characteristics of Diospyros mun at Cuc Phuong National Park showed that, this species is distributed on Renzin yellow, brown yellow or yellow feralitic soils, with soil depth from 1.0 to 1.6 meters, relatively high humus content, soil pH = 5 – 6.5, It grows scattered or form clumps in high scrub jungle or on the limestone mountains with elevations below 700 meters. In the natural forest, Diospyros mun usually grows with other tree species such as Nephelium chryseum, Dimocarpus fumatus, Callophyllum ceriferum, Sinosideroxylon racemosum and random relationship with these species. Diospyros mun is the dominant species in which values ​​can be IV = 11.02% to be greater than 4 other dominant species and less than Nephelium chryseum species (IV% is 12.96%). Mun has the ability to regenerate whole seeds (86%) and shoots (14%) relatively good.

 

 

 

Keyword: Carbon,
Carbon storage,
Central Highlands,
Dry dipterocarps forest.

 

Study on carbon storage ability of dry dipterocarp forest in Central Highlands in Vietnam

Vũ Đức Quỳnh1, Võ Đại Hải2
1 Hạt Kiểm lâm Vị Xuyên – Hà Giang
2 Viện Khoa học Lâm nghiệp Việt Nam

The results of this study show that carbon stocks in six major woody species in dipterocarp forest concentrate mainly in stems which account for from 49.38% to 94.95%, following by carbon stocks in branches which range from 13.25% to 21.50%; carbon stocks in roots range from 11.51% to 15.88% and carbon stocks in bark account for from 7.2% to 17.84%. Carbon stocks in leaves, on the other hand, account for from 1.54% to 3.72%. Carbon storages in major woody species vary widely between stem diameter groups as well as species. In average, the highest amount of carbon storages in individual trees is 243.41kg tree-1, which belongs to Dipterocarpus obtusifolius, following by carbon storage in individual trees of Dipterocarpus tuberculatus (212.59kg tree-1). By comparison, the figures for the other major species rage from 149.26kg tree-1 to 166.58kg tree-1. The rate of carbon below ground and carbon aboveground of individual trees is 0.19. The results of study on carbon structure reveal that 67.08% and 28.39% of total carbon in dipterocarp forest are carbon in soil and woody species, respectively, while the others carbon pools account for only 4.53%. In average the carbon storage in dipterocarp forest in Central Highlands in Vietnam is 84.52 tons C ha-1. The study also establishes some allometric equations to estimate carbon sequestration of dipterocarp forest in Central Highlands in Vietnam.


 


Keyword: Allowmetric equation, biomass,Melaleuca, calorific

 

BIOMASS AND CALORIFIC OF MELALEUCA PLANTATION IN LONG AN

Phạm Thế Dũng, Vũ Đình Hưởng
Viện Khoa học Lâm nghiệp Nam Bộ

The study was carried out with the object of estimating biomass and developing algometric equation for biomass partioning of Melaleuca species planted in Long An province at different sites and provenances, and analyzing chemical contents of Melaleuca wood to evaluate the calorific of its. All of the trees in 45 plots were measured for height and diameter at breast height and 30 sample trees were harvested for biomass components analysis, and 36 wood Melaleuca samples were collected and analized. Results shown that there was significant relationship between biomass components and diameter at breast height and dried biomass components of stem such as 68% for Melaleuca cajuputi and 65% for Melaleuca leucadendra, and the order to follwed by branches, bark and foliages occuppied 6% for Melaleuca cajuputi and 5% for Melaleuca leucadendra, respectively. Chemical contents were almost higher than poplar tree and calorific of Melaleuca cajuputi wood was 7,320 Cal/g and Melaleuca leucadendra wood was 7,650 Cal/g.

 

Key words: Rubber plantation, forest environment, water holding capacity, water vaporization, water inspiration.

 

Water holding capacity, vaporization and transpiration of rubber plantation (Hevea brasiliensis) in North Central region

Trương Tất Đơ1, Vương Văn Quỳnh2, Phùng Văn Khoa2
[1]
NCS Trường Đại học Lâm nghiệp;
2 Trường Đại học Lâm nghiệp;

This paper presents research result on water holding capacity, water vaporization and transpiration of rubber plantation (Hevea brasiliensis) in North Central region. The study indicated that water holding capacity of rubber plantation range from 3,830 to 4,021 m3/ha, which is higher than Acacia manguim plantation and lower than natural forests. Vaporization of rubber plantation is 8,061kg/ha/day for a day without rain. Intensity of transpiration is 2.31 g/min for a kg of rubber leaves and it is 20.6 ton/ha/day on average for a day without rain. Transpiration of rubber plantation is range from  711.7 to 5,935.8 m3/ha/year and not clear different in term of statistic compare to that of acacia plantation. Water holding capacity, water vaporization and transpiration of rubber plantation much vary depending on the ages of plantations, which largely depends on characteristic structure of plantation such as canopy cover of tree layer; shrub layers coverage, green litter and quantity and distribution of dried litter on forest ground. The differece between structural characteristics of rubber plantation and situation of control forests is leading to the different in water holding capacity, water vaporization and transpiration of rubber plantation.

 



Key words: Rhododendron, a synopsis, distribution, conservation status,
Lam Dong province.

 

A synopsis and consevation status of the genus Rhododendron L. in Lam Dong province

Nông Văn Duy1, Trần Thái Vinh1, Vũ Kim Công1, Quách Văn Hợi1,
Đặng Thị Thắm1, Nguyễn Thị Huyền1, Trần Văn Tiến2 và Ngô Sỹ Long2
1
Viện Nghiên cứu Khoa học Tây Nguyên,
Viện Hàn lâm Khoa học và Công nghệ Việt Nam
2Khoa sinh học, Trường Đại học Đà Lạt

A synopsis of the genus Rhododendron in Lam Dong province was made by mean of a literature search, consultation of the herbaria specimens, and a survey of several localities through Lam Dong province and Western Plateau of Vietnam. Five species encounted were scatter – distributed in high mountain, at the altitude between 1,500 – 2,400m a.s.l. They were assessed at the national level as Endangered (EN) and Vulnerable (VU) due to over – exploitation and fragmented habitat. Therefore, it needs urgent in situ and ex situ protection.

 

Keywords: Remote sensing imagery, forest inventory, forest classification, forest status.

 

Applying object – base imagery classification technique to classify forest status based on circular No.34

Nguyễn Văn Thị, Trần Quang Bảo
Trường Đại học Lâm nghiệp

This article presents a result of applying object – base imagery classification technique to determine forest status based on Circular No. 34 for 4 communes: Son Kim 1, Son Kim 2, Son Tay and Tay Son in Huong Son district,ha Tinh province. SPOT5 HRS imagery and eCognition Developer and ArcGIS software were used for classification. Applying multi – resolution segmentation algorithm of eCognition Developer to segment the imagery of study area into 29,974 deference objects with ranging areas from 0.05 to 27.8 hectare. To match the definition of forest, the objects under 0,05 hectare were merge into the contiguous larger object that closest texture characteristic. After merging, the number of objects are 17,465 with 0,5 to 27,8 hectare of area. Based on the results of classification indices from ground survey, segmented imagery of SPOT5 were classified into 7 statuses of forest: (1) rich ever – green, (2) medium ever – green, (3) poor ever – green, (4) rehabilitation ever – green, (5) mixed wood and bamboo, (6) plantation and (7) bare land.

 

Key words: Agroforestry, Northwest Vietnam, Walnut market (Carya tongkinensis)

 

 

Market study and development potential of Walnut in Northwest Vietnam

Hoàng Thị Lụa1, Delia Catacutan1, Ann Degrande2, Viên Kim Cương3, Chris Harwood4
1World agroforestry Center Vietnam office, số 8, lô 13A, Đường Trung Hòa, Cầu Giấy, Hà Nội
2 CRAF – West and Central Africa Regional Programme, World Agroforestry Centre,
PO Box 16317, Yaounde, Cameroon
3 Chuyên gia thị trường
4 CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystem, Private Bag 12, Hobart 7001, Australia

Walnut has been identified as a tree species that can grow well at elevations of 1,000masl, similar to areas in Northern upland of Vietnam. The trees produce nutritious nuts that can be stored and transported easily. Walnut appears to be a suitable component in an agroforestry system that can be introduced to address the challenges of shifting cultivation and mono – cropping with short – term food crops in hilly landscape of the region. However, prior to the promotion of agroforestry systems with Walnut, market aspects for Walnut should be studied. This study reports about the current market situation of Walnut in Vietnam, assesses its development potential, and gives recommendation for Walnut production in Northern Vietnam. The market for Walnuts in Vietnam has already been established, with Walnuts distributed through a network of Chinese medicinal shops across the country, mostly in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh city. The estimated domestic market size of Walnut in Vietnam is around 22,000 tons (in 2011) and entirely imported. Given the high value and large volume of Walnuts being traded in international market, domestic production of Walnut is still absent. Since there is an existing demand for Walnut as a healthy food, the production of Walnut in Vietnam should focus on serving Vietnamese consumers. An additional 5,000ha of Walnut production areas could be established in the next five years, given that 2,000ha will be established in Dong Van/ha Giang province by 2015. More Walnut production area, on top of the 5,000ha, could be planted if consumers prefer to purchase Vietnamese Walnut products than the imported ones or if the government imposes measure to protect local growers in the form of import tariffs or barriers. In spite of recommendations for domestic production to meet market demand in Vietnam, a detailed production model with associated cost and volume output is to be developed to confirm potential realization of economic value at farm level. Especially when Walnut is planted on steep slope, the cost for tending activities and harvesting should be carefully taken into consideration.

 

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