Vietnam Journal of Forest Science Number 2-2013

Studying the applicability of the SSR markers in evaluating the growth of the eucalyptus hybrid lines

Molecular assisted sellection are increasingly interested because it can shorten the selection time, even selecting in the seedling stage. The molecular markers which linked with the interested traits will be used to evaluate in order to select the superior lines. 14 SSR primer sets were used to evaluate the growth of the Eucalyptus hybrid lines from some of the hybrid combinations. These lines were grown on different sites. The results showed that the evaluating based on the molecular markers were conformity with the progeny trials of the hybrid lines, as a first step. Among of the 14 SSR primer sets, we determined six primer sets (including of EMBRA28, 80, 93, 111, 187, and 361 primers) which can use to distinguish between the fast growth and the slow growth lines. However, the present study used only a little of primers and hybrid lines so we need make an experiment with more number.


Primary results of tissue culture propagation of Ficus callosa Willd supporting deployment of species vegetable

Ficus callosa Willd is a native woody plant. It’s tip and leafs are used as special vegetable. Up to now, propagation of Bang was only done by air-laying method with low multiplication rate and affected to mother plants. In this study, cells tissue culture methods were applied to propagate the Ficus callosa. The branches were taken in May – June for in vitro culture. They were firstly sterilied by 70o alcohol and then 10% H2O2 for 5 minutes with 3 times and finally by 0,1% HgCl2 for 5 minutes. The result was achieved by 15% survivor samples.

Hard outer leaflets were removed before culturing into the multiplicative medium. Shoot multiplication rate was 1.8 times when buds culture on the medium 2/3MS + 0.5 mg/l BAP + 0.5 mg/l K, light green new buds, leaf edges with pinking. Rooting rate was 59% and 55% on medium 2/3MS supplement with IBA 0.3 mg/l or charcoal 1.5 g/l, respectively. After 2 months, invitro plantlets were transplanted in to normal plastic pots in the nursery.


Study on production of seedlings of acacia hybrid and Acacia mangium by organic substrates in nursery

Production of acacia hybrid and Acacia mangium seedlings on organic substrates has carried out at the nursery of Vietnamese Academy of Forest Science. After 90 days sowing the seeds of A. mangium and putting cuttings of acacia hybrid in root containers with eight formulas of substrate, experiment results showed significant differences in height growth of seedlings in these formulas. Substrate formula 1 (coir: river sand, with ratio 2: 1 + 2 gram biofertilizer MF1), formula 3 (sawdust composted: river sand, with ratio 2: 1, + 2 gram biofertilizer MF1) and formula 5 (coir: river sand, with ratio 1: 1, + 2 gram biofertilizer MF1) are the best formulas to produce acacia hybrid and Acacia mangium seedlings.


Research on technique of planting Amomum longiligulare T.L.Wu on the hill garden land in the edge of Ba Vi National Park

Caycon keotaituong

The research has been carried out in the edge of Ba Vi National Park. The results of research showed that: The formulas of different density does not specific influence to the rate of survival, height growth, tillering, flowering and fruiting of Amomum longiligulare T.L.Wu in the period of 15 months after planting so it should be continued to monitor. Fertilizer significantly affected to height growth, tillering, flowering and fruiting of Amomum longiligulare T.L.Wu in the period of 15 months after planting but it is not significantly influence to the survival. Initial results affirm the 4th fomula (2kg manure + 100g NPK (5:10:3) + 200g microbiological fertilizers) is most promising (survival rate reached 96.2%, height 165.67cm, 47.42 sprouts/cluster, 21.0 flowers/cluster, 13.33 fruits/cluster, the rate of fruiting 67.86%). Canopy cover significantly affected to height growth, flowering and fruiting of Amomum longiligulare T.L.Wu in the period of 15 months after planting, but it does not significantly influence to the rate of survival and the ability to generate sprouts. Initial results affirm the 2nd formula (Cover 0.3 – 0.5) is the most promising (survival rate 96.67%, height throw the tips 163.67cm, 38.75 sprouts/cluster, 17.67 flowers/cluster, 8.67 fruits/cluster, the rate of fruiting 49.07%).


The impact of factors affecting the productivity of Acacia hybrid forest  in Thua Thien Hue

Hybrid Acacia is the major species in the forest plantation in Thua Thien Hue province. This study was conducted to analyze and evaluate the impact of factors affecting the productivity of Acacia hybrid forest those are grown and harvested in Thua Thien Hue. The study has collected data in 327 plots, of the 38 communes in 6 districts where Acacia hybrid have planted and harvested. The study has analyzed and evaluated 9 factors including 5 site condition factors (including soil type, soil thickness, soil texture, slope, and elevation), two climate factors (including total rainfall and annual temperature) and two socio-economic factors (including forest cultivation model and forest management model). The results showed that all the studied factors have a significant impact on yield/productivity of Acacia hybrid forest in the Thua Thien Hue province with the significance level is less than 5%. However, the management factor is not significantly affected. The study suggested that households need to be supported and invested in afforestation with intensive cultivation model because the productivity of intensive plantation is nearly doubled compared to the extensive cultivation model. It is needed to study the aggregate effect of these factors and build a productivity map for the Acacia hybrid forest by different planting/cultivation models in Thua Thien Hue province in order to facilitate the management and sustainable development of Acacia hybrid forest in Thua Thien Hue province.


Research on determining the growth index for Dipterocarpus alatus on the site condition of Binh Phuoc province

This research was implemented in Binh Phuoc province using the following methods: (i) Establishing the formulas for calculating the growth index of some main forest plantation species; (ii) Establishing, analyzing the multiple regression equations reflecting the relationship between the growth index and the site condition’s components using the environment of STAGRAPHICS XVI; (iii) Implementing the applied programming for determining the values of the growth index of some main forest plantation species in each site cell using the environment of MICROSOFT VISUAL FOXPRO 9.0 (MVF9). The database used for this research was the site condition grids database of Binh Phuoc province which was created by the research team from the previous studies. The main results of this research include: (i) The height growth index, diameter growth index of Dipterocarpus alatus species; (ii) The multiple regression models reflecting the relationship between the planted species and the site condition’s components.


Mapping the K coefficient for the payment for forest environmental services in watershed

This paper presents a method of mapping the K coefficient and calculating the amount of payments for forest environmental services to each forest stand in the watershed. The mapping of the synthetic K coefficient of the watershed is constructed from 4 maps of the component factors of the K coefficient, including: (1) a map defining the K1 factor correcting the PES according to the forest’s state, (2) a map defining the K2 factor correcting the PES based on the forest type, (3) a map defining the K3 factor correcting the PES according to the forest’s formative origin, and (4) a map defining the K4 factor correcting the PES based on the difficulty level of the forest protection. The input data used for calculating and mapping the K coefficients include the maps of forest state, 3 forest type planning, forest and land allocation, transportation network, population distribution, watershed boundary and the digital elevation model (DEM) of the watershed. The results showed that, the map of the K coefficient is very useful for calculating the payment amount and establishing the list of payments for forest environmental services for each of the forest owners in the watershed.


Growth dominance pattern of hybrid eucalyptus stands at Northeastern province of Quang Ninh

At a given age, the main contribution of dominant or smaller trees for the stand growth will determine the stand growth dominance pattern. Based on the dominance pattern a given silvicultural practice, such as thinning would be proposed for the stand. In this paper, the five-year-old hybrid Eucalyptus (E. urophylla ´ E. grandis) stands reached to an average diameter of 12.5cm, the height of 16.0m, and the biomass of 118m3/ha, respectively. Trees at the bottomhill and the tophill showed the higher growth than those at middlehill area. Lorenz curves of all stands aged from 2 to 5 years old at three position dropped above the basic line (so-called “1:1 line”). This reflects that all stands are bearing the “reverse” growth dominance patterns; that means smaller (non-dominant) trees are contributing a greater part into the stand growth than the dominant ones no matter which age and/or growing position. This result is out of research hypothesis that a “positive” growth pattern was expected in this period of the stands. Low planting density and extensive techniques are probably considered as the dynamics of the stands. Therefore, it is not necessary to apply a thinning process at the present.


Guide curve site model for Acacia mangium plantation

Guide curve based on height – age data of temporary plots is one of three approaches to model site classes of monoculture even age plantations. In this study, the guide curve is used to estimate site productivity of Accacia mangium plantations in Vietnam. The results reveal that, this method is reliable and acceptable to use for site class modeling for monoculture even age plantation. The guide curve appears more suitable with stand height growth characteristic at initial development stage of plantation than site class method based on stem analysis data.


Valuation of economic and environmental values of sand break protection forests in South Central Coast of Vietnam

The study on economic and environmental valuation of sand break protection forests was carried out in Ninh Thuan and Binh Thuan provinces. The study aimed to quantify direct use and indirect use values of sand break protection forests. Market price method is employed to quantify direct use values and carbon sequestration values. The damage cost avoided method was used for valuation of protection value and landscape beauty value was assessed by travel cost method. The results show that direct use value of sand break protection forest is quyte small, ranging from 1.1- 1.4 million VND/ha/year. However, the environmental values (protection, landscape and carbon sequestration) are considerable that vary from 7.5 – 13.0million VND/ha/year (estimating at 87.1 – 90.3% of its total value). In the environmental values, protection value for agricultural production is 2.9 – 5.5 million VND/ha/year (34.2 – 38.6%); for communities and property ranges from 1.7 – 1.8million VND/ha/year (occupying 12.0 – 21.6%); health protection value is 260,000 – 531,000 VND/ha/year (3.0 – 3.8%); landscape beauty value is 340,000 – 452,000 VND/ha/year (3.1 – 3.9%) and carbon sequestration value is 2.1 – 4.7 million VND/ha/year (24.4 – 32.8%).


Assessment on growth and economic effects of acacia hybrid in Binh Dinh province

Monocultural Acacia hybrid is plantated in the Mỹ Trinh commune, Phù Mỹ district, Bình Định province, trees are medium grown. After 7 years, stumpage volume ranges from 118,0 to 130,9m3/ha, average volume is 124,3m3/ha, average stumpage volume per year is 17,8m3/ha, total revenue ranges from 86,6 to 101,8 million dong/ha. Net present value (NPV) ranges from 29,4million dong to 37,1million dong/ha/7 year, Internal rate of return (IRR) ranges from 32% to 35,8%, average is 33,5%/ha. Monocultural Acacia hybrid in the Binh Dinh brings a economic benefits to local people, create a job and raise livelihood for local people. Acacia hybrid plantation also contribute to forest coverage hills, barren land, environmental improvement, Acacia hybrid plantation produces timber for paper industry and woodchips for export in Vietnam.


A study on chain of raw materials and diversification trend of timber plantations in six provinces under Forestry Sector Development Project (FSDP)

Research results in 6 provinces under FSDP project  shows that market plantation forestry in these provinces are imbalance in supply – demand of forest products markets; Chain of timber products is simple, mainly woodchip export with low prices and unstable; and benefits of grower has not so far been improved. There are some solutions tend to promote diversification of commercial plantations in order to bring benefits to growers, ensuring objectives of Forestry Development Strategy (2006 – 2020), reducing the pressure timber imports were undertaken by FSDP project. The initial results created a legal framework, credit support, capacity building cooperation in forest production, forest certification. These activities have encouraged local people to participate in forest production, product development plantation increasingly diversified forest products towards international markets


The role of household planting tree at smallholder scale in six provinces under Forestry Sector Development Project (FSDP)

Research on the role of household in tree planting at smallholder scale is done in 6 provinces of Thanh Hoa, Nghe An, Thua Thien – Hue, Quang Nam, Quang Ngai and Binh Dinh under the FSDP project area, which indicated that: Households have a major role in development of forest plantation. They are all allocated to a large area of ​​forest land in the North and South Central Coast region. Total area of forest plantation established by households is 516,666.89 ha, accounting for 74.3% of allocated forest land in this region. So, they have created a large enough area of forest plantation to provide raw materials for timber industry and contributing to the target of Forestry development Strategy 2006-2020, as well. Household is a central element to be provided capital and technical support at smallholder scale in tree planting. They are practitioners to complete technical silvicuture for tree planting and tree management at smallholder scale of plantation. Besides, each of HGD was considered the “stem cells” to form forest certification (FSC) group.


Research for improving wood preservative technology XM5 powder and XM5 paste

The components of wood preservative XM5 after impregnated into timber will react together producing complex compound difficult to be leached from treated wood used outdoor. This paper is dealing with the result of the pilot project for XM5 powder and XM5 paste production at scale of 300.tons products/year carried out by Forest Science Institute of Vietnam. For preparing XM5 powder, CuSO4.5H2O and K2Cr2O7, the two main compositions, were ground to particles of 0,3-0,5mm and mixed in rotary mixer at speed 30 cycles/min during 15 min. For making XM5 paste, gelatinized starch and XM5 powder were mixed by stirring equypment at speed 50cycle/min during 20min.


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