Forest Science Institute of Vietnam (FSIV) annual report 2010

PART I

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS, ADVANTAGES AND DIFFICULTIES

General charateristics

2010 was the year to complete the 5 year plan for the period of 2006-2010.

The Forest Science Institute of Vietnam (FSIV) has developed a Project to re-construct and improve the institute into the Academy. The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) has agreed with the Project, and submitted the Project to the Prime Minster for approval.

2010 was the sixth year that FSIV had attended to tender for establishment and implementation for scientific and technological projects, and won 20 projects, the largest number of projects won in one year so far. 

FSIV has 1 Director General, 4 Deputy Director Generals, 3 functional divisions, 6 research divisions, 14 research and technology transfer centers and 1 sub-institute. FSIV has 588 staff of which 454 are permanent staff and 124 are contracted staff. FSIV has 5 associate professors, 1 doctor of science, 22 doctors of philosophy, 124 masters, 270 engineers/bachelors of science and 166 technicians and workers.  

Advantages

FSIV received effective advice and direction from leaders and departments of MARD and other relevant agencies. FSIV staff is composed of highly qualified and experienced scientists who take a very enthusiastic and proactive approach to their research. FSIV has been assigned a large number of projects and programs for implementation, monitoring and evaluation. 

Difficulties

Negative climate change created difficulty for the establishment of field experiments. Research activities of FSIV have been implemented across the country, but the number of staff working in functional divisions was reduced. This reduction of functional staff has caused difficulty in monitoring and evaluation of results in some research projects.

Tasks were not equally assigned among research fields and units. This had some negative impacts on the management and activities of FSIV and its units. 

The prices of labor and inputs increased, but the project budgets were kept unchanged.    

PART II. ASKS IN 2010

In 2010, FSIV implemented the following tasks: 115 scientific, technological and environmental tasks with a value of more than 35 billion VND; 5 forest extension contracts with a combined value of 2.07 billion VND; 3 forest tree breeding projects with a combined value of 8.5 billion VND; 5 equipment and tool strengthening projects with a combined value of 13.05 billion VND, 7 small size construction and preparation projects with a combined value of 1.17 billion VND, 5 basic construction projects with the value of 20.77 billion VND, 19 international projects/contracts with a combined value of 9.05 billion VND, post-graduate training with a value of 107 million VND, and over 135 contracts of science, services and commercial production with a combined value of 46.39 billlion VND. 

The total budget of FSIV in 2010 was 154,557,000,000 VND, equal to the previous year. 

PART III. ACHIEVEMENT

3.1. Results from the implementation of scientific, technological and environmental tasks

The main achievments of the year 2010 are as follows:

3.1.1. Silviculture field

a. Forest tree breeding

MARD approved 21 new tree varieties that have high yield of timber. Several varieties of Hybrid Acacia, A. auriculiformis, A. mangium and E.camaldulensis could resist diease and pests, and some varieties of Macadamia have a high fruit yield.

Apart from approved varieties, FSIV has created potential varieties, such as selected 19 Maleleuca varieties, that have high yield of cineole oil which could be exported. 

Remaining tasks include developing nearly 1000ha of seed stand, seed orchard, parent trees, and trial areas for tree breeding improvement. These include species of Pinus, Acacia, Eucalyptus, native species for enrichment such as (Giổi xanh (Michelia mediocoris), Re (Cinamomum sp), Trám trắng (Canarium album), Lim xanh (Erythrophleum fordii), species for planting on sand and coastal areas such as Đước (Rhizophora apiculata), Vẹt tách (Bruguiera parviflora), Tràm ta (Melaleuca cajuputi), Tràm lá dài (Melaleuca leucadendra), drought-resistant Xoan (Melia azedarach), Phi lao  (Casuarina equisetifolia J.R et G. Fors).

To transfer propagation techniques and provide original varieties and breeding materials to local people and agencies across the country in order to develop parent tree gardens  The percentage of using improved breeding has increased to about 60%.

Selected plus trees and properated (by cutting or tissue culture) for hybrid acacia, Keo lá tràm (Acacia auriculiformis), Bạch đàn caman (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh), Bạch đàn pelita (Eucalyptus pelita), Bạch đàn lai (Hybrid Eucalyptus), Xoan ta (Melia azedarach), Tếch (Tectona grandis), Sở (Camellia oleifera), Dó trầm (Aquilara sp); propergated for Macadamia, Cọc rào (Jatropha curcas L), Mạy bói (Bambusa burmanica Gamble), Mạy lay (Gigantochloa albociliata (Munro) Kurz), Tre tầm vông (Thyrsostachys siamensis), Lùng, Mai xanh, Mạnh tông (Denldrocalamus asper), Tai chua (Garcinia cowa), Dầu rái (Dipterocarrpus alatus Roxb. ex G.Don), Sao đen (Hopea odorata), Vù hương (Cinnamomum parthenoxylon (Jack) Meisn.), Sưa (Dalbergia tonkinensis Prain), Mơ (Prunus armeniaca), Vằng đắng (Coscinium usitatum), Chùm ngây (Moringa Oleifera Lam), Trà hoa vàng (Camelia petelotii), Dứa dại (Pandanus odoratissium L.F), Muống biển, Từ bi; Used molecule indicatior of RAPD and cpADN to analyse genetic relationship and diversification, develop clone trials; hybridy within and among species of keo (Acacia sp), bạch đàn (Eucalyptus), Xoan ta (Melia azedarach).

FSIV developed a method to create seedlings of Thong Nhua (P. Merkusii) by tissue culture using mature embryos and suitable conditions. We determined the concentration of bacterium, kanamycin, timentin, time to cultivate, create physical wound, and create material for genetic exchange by bacteria. 

FSIV determined 33 indicators of SSR and evaluated the relationship between molecular indicators and growth phenotypes of brown Eucalyptus;. We developed library of cDNA, data base of EST, seperated 2 genes related to compose lignin CCR and CAD2, and determined 25 order of 2 genes above. We chose 6 kinds of Arbuscular mycorrhiza for forest trees and; created 4 types of enviroments.

Regarding Cọc rào (Jatropha curcas L)  species, we selected 4 potential provenances for planting, achieving more than 1.5 tons of seed per ha/year after 2 years of planting, selected 85 plus trees from planted models in Ninh Thuận that have seed yield of  2.0-3.2kg/tree/year. Application of AM to increase seed yield to 25-35% and increase the rate of flowered trees to 16-25%.

b. Forest planting techniques

We classified forest sites and determined conditions and planting techniques for timber species of keo lai (Acacia hybrid), Keo tai tượng (Acacia mangium), Keo lá tràm (Acacia auriculiformis), Bạch đàn nâu (Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake), Thông Caribê (Pinus caribaea), Dầu nước (Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb), Sao đen (Hopea odorata), Vối thuốc (Schima wallichii Choisy) , Giổi bắc (Michelia wilsonii Finet & Gagnep), Lát Mexico (Cedrela Odorata), Tống quá sủ (Alnus nepalensis), Ươi (Scaphilum lychnophorum), Cọc rào (Jatropha curcas L), Xà cừ lá nhỏ, Chiêu liêu (Terminalia chebula), Thúi, Thanh thất (Ailanthus triphysa), Mỏ chim (Cleidison spiciflorum), Lò bo (Brownlowia tabularis), Dầu cát (Dipterocarpus insularis), Gáo trắng (Neolamarckia cadamba), Sồi phảng (Lithocarpus fissus Champ. ex benth ). 

We determined conditions and techniques for planting non-timber forest species such as Sở (Camellia oleifera), Tai chua (Garcinia cowa), Dó trầm (Aquilara sp), Dẻ ăn hạt (Castanopsis boisii), Sơn ta (Toxicodendron succedanea), Chùm ngây (Moringa Oleifera Lam), Kim tiền thảo (Desmodium styracifolium), Vằng đắng (Coscinium usitatum)

We created a classification for degraded Luong (Dedrocalamus barbatus) and determined the reasons of degradation. We also found that native species such as Lim xanh (Erythrophleum fordii), Sồi phảng (Lithocarpus fissus Champ. ex benth), Re gừng (Cinnamomum obtusifolium A. Chev), keo lai (Hybrid acacia) can improve degraded Luong (Dedrocalamus barbatus) plantations.

We determined the techniques necessary to convert plantation forests of Thông nhựa (Pinus merkusii jungh et de Vries) and Thông mã vĩ  (Pinus massoniana Lamb) in the North-Central region into native forests of Lim xanh (Erythrophleum fordii), Sồi phảng (Lithocarpus fissus Champ. ex benth), Re (Cinnamomum sp), Dẻ đỏ (Lithocarpus ducampii).; We converted Thông ba lá (Pinus kesiya) forest in Central Highlands into native forest of Pơ mu (Fokienia hodginsii), Bách xanh (Calocedrus macrolepis Kurz), Dẻ Trung bộ, Dẻ Trung Quốc (Castanopsis chinensis), Giổi xương (Paramichelia baillonii) and Xuyên cóc. We developed techniques to protect and improve soil fertility in order to improve productivity of bạch đàn (Eucalyptus), and keo (Acacia) planted in following rotations.

We determined the ecological characteristics and planting conditions of some herbaceous species such as Muống biển (Impomoea pescaprae), Từ bi, Dứa dại (Pandanus odoratissium L.F) on coastal sand soil. We also identified 10 native species with potential for planting in drought areas, such as Cóc hành (Aszadirachta excelsa), Sò đo (Markhamia stipulata) and Trôm (Sterculia sp).

Based on research results, we developed a draft technical procedure to plant and convert plantation forests of Thông caribê (Pinus caribaea), Keo tai tượng (Acacia mangium), Keo lá tràm (Acacia auriculiformis), Bạch đàn nâu (Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake) into plantation forests to provide saw logs.

We integrated forest tree improvement and intensive planting techniques for species of keo (Acacia), bạch đàn (Eucalyptus), thông (Pinus), with the ultimate goal of yielding paper material, woodchips, and sawlogs at a rate of 20-40m3/ha/year.c. Silvicultural methodology for natural forest.

We established 69 permanent plots of 4 forest types and collected data in these plots: Salt-swamp tropical evergreen broad-leaved forest;, tropical evergreen broad-leaved forest, tropical semi-deciduous broad-leaved forest (Khộp forest), and alum-swamp tropical rain evergreen broad-leaved forest;. We made use of supplemental information, such as data and scientific evidence of population growth of forest types and individual growth of some dominant species;. We also supplemented structural characteristics and regeneration dynamics, as well as the succession of 4 forest types to be a basis for recommendation of management and trade methodology for natural forests in Vietnam. 

d. Ecology and forest environment

We developed criteria for classification of hazardous sites of mangrove forest in coastal provinces in the North. 5 species of mangrove forest were selected to create seedlings in nurseries and to plant in sand, stone, and coral pieces under irregular tides in islands of the South. We determined 3 native species suitable for preventing erosion of rivers and channels. We determined forest characteristics and factors to create mangrove forest growing on sand and stone and coral pieces in Con Dao National Park and recommended 6 species and techniques to produce seedlings of Đung (Rhizophora mucronata), Đâng (Rhizophora stylosa), Đước đôi (Rhizophora apiculata), Đước lai (Rhizophora hybrid), Dà vôi (Ceriops tagal) and Sú đỏ.

We evaluated the status of management, direct value of use, store value, and carbon sequestration of protection forests to protect them from tides in Ca Mau and Kien Giang.

We analysed data inputs of emission records following IPCC principles, and; collected and analysed data inputs to create a methodological basis to assess green gas in forestry.

Finally, we established guidelines to evaluate the environmental impacts of forest planting projects.

e. Microorganism and forest protection and management

243 Cordyceps samples were collected in Vietnam and; 26 species were identified, of which 24 were the first such species recorded in Vietnam. Initially, Cordycep millitaris was successfully cultured on artificial media. Isaria tenuipes was first recorded in Vietnam. This species contains chemicals effective in fighting cancer and leukemia cells and has been mass cultivated in Korea and China for a long time.

We conducted research on producing bio-fertilizer inocula in tablet forms, namely MF1 containing symbiotic fungi,  phosphate dissolving micro-organism (PDM) and antifungal bacteria against to Cylindrocladium quinqueseptatum and Cryptosporiopsis eucalypti causing leaf-spot diseases and MF2 containing symbiotic fungi, PDM and antifungal bacterium against Fusarium oxysprorium causing damping-off diseases. MF 1 applied to eucalypt plantations in Bac Giang and Binh Dinh provinces increased growth by 13-65% and reduced disease incidence by 70-89%, and MF2 applied to pine plantations in Ha Tinh province increased growth by 12-72% and reduced disease incidence by 64-89%.

22 pathogens causing eucalypt and acacia diseases were identified. 186 eucalyptus and acacia plus trees were selected for propagation, some Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Acacia auriculiformis clones were selected as technical varieties for large scale planting from clone trials. 36 Pinus merkusii plus trees were selected for propagation and screening for resistance to Dendrolimus punctatus.

7 leaf-eating insect species to A. mangium, A. auriculiformic and acacia hybrid were identified (Phalera grotei Moore; Amatisticsa snelleni Heyaerts, Acanthopsyche sp., Hypomecessquamosus Fabr, Epismoides sp., Anomala cupripes and Valanga irregularis). Damage incidence and severity of these insects in Quang Tri, gall forming wasps to eucalypt species in Phu Tho and Binh Dinh and bark beetles associated with Pinus massosiana in Vinh Phuc and Quang Ninh provinces were also assessed.

17 termite species damaging acacia and eucalypt plantations were identified. Biological and ecological characteristics of these species were studied. Three insecticides (Lenfos 50EC, Mapsedan 48 EC, Termidor 25EC) and one biological inoculum (Metavita 90EC) of 10 inocula and insecticides tested showed high effectiveness in termite control. Termite control measures were applied to acacia and eucalypt plantations in North-east, North-west, and Central Highlands areas of Vietnam. 

3.1.2. Forest industry

a. Improvement of tools, mechanism to establish and harvest forest

We determined the intensity of light, temperature, air humidity suitable for cutting process of Keo lai (Hybrid acacia), Bạch đàn nâu (Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake), Chiêu liêu (Terminalia chebula), Bách xanh (Calocedrus macrolepis) in different climates. Recommended technology of shading and spraying automatically for cutting process.

2 new types of plots were designed to tend new forest plantations in North-west, Central highlands, and South-east region.

b. Result of forest product processing

On the basis of new discoveris, we proposed a new wood classification system which would reduce from 8 groups to 6 groups varieties more suitable for wood prcessing and related uses. To accomplish this we reviewed the research results of wood priorities, as well as wood analyses of 120 species belonging to 53 genera and 25 plant families in Vietnam,. We also researched wood characteristics of Đước (Rhizophora), Vẹt tách (Bruguiera parviflora), Su Mêkông, Đưng (Rhizophora mucronata), Sữa (Alstonia scholaris), Gáo trắng (Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb) Booser), Gạo (Bombax malabarica), Bông gòn (Ceiba pentandra), Bạch đàn nâu (Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake), Vối thuốc (Schima wallichii Choisy), Dó trầm (Aquilara sp),. We published the Atlas of timber and bamboo of Vietnam.

We researched the dying schedule for wood of plantation forest species such as Eucalyptus, Acacia and Pinus. Researched and recommended the technology to compose Phenol formaldehyde used in wood processing for boat manufacturing. Appropriate technologies were recommended to create multi-layer boards from Bạch đàn nâu (Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake), Keo tai tượng (Acacia mangium), Keo lai (Hybrid acacia) to be used in boat construction. We designed and manufactured machines to create multi-layer wood, and  1 new boat used processing timber of plantation forest.

We created a database, developed a draft drying schedule of Duoc wood,, the technical procedure to produce furniture;, technological procedure to manufacture floor boards, procedure to produce charcoal; determined methods to deal with wood defects using chemical and temperature measures; tested procedures of sawingand drying to deal with wood defects.

We determined species to provide colour for clothes such as red, yellow, brown, indigo. 

We determined: Physical characteristics, chemicals of seed cover of Dieu (Anacardium occidentale), oil rate left and impact of oil on the process to create chipboard, parameters to create chip from seed cover of Dieu, parameters to dry the seed cover of Dieu, seed cover mixed with chip of Eucalytus urophylla and tram by the rate of 1:1, 1:2 to make the core of board, schedule of pressure to create 3-layer board using Pinus wood for in the dry conditions of Vietnam.

We surveyed 120 wood processing companies/units across the country and, developed plans for the wood processing industry of Vietnam.

c. Forest product preservation

We completed the technology to preserve and process rattan. We collaborated with local rattan processing units to transfer technology, and built 1 model applied in Cho Moi district, Bac Can province.

We determined the technological parameters to preserve wood of P. massoniana using LN5 chemical as well as, the chemical formula and treatment schedule to deal with fungi that damages wood colour of Pinus massoniana. Research results have been transfered and 1 model has been built in Lang Son province.

We conducted tests on extraction of oil of Hoi (Illicium verum). We were able to determined the criteria of colour, density, boil line and some other parameters of Hoi oil. Equipment was designed to extract Hoi oil using engery from firewood or coal with capacity of 300 kg material/time.

MARD approved 4 types of forest product preservation chemicals, including infection temine chemical, fungi protection chemical, and 2 chemicals created from oil of seed cover of Dieu.

3.1.3. Forestry-related Economics and Policy

We determined: The value of standing trees, the use-rights, value to prevent erosion, control water sources, coastal protection of mangrove forest,carbon sequestration of production natural forest, protection forest, special-use forests, plantation forests of keo lai (Acacia hybrid), Keo tai tượng(Acacia mangium), Bạch đàn nâu (Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake), Thông mã vĩ (Pinus massoniana Lamb), Thông nhựa (Pinus merkusii jungh et de Vries). Based on the results achieved, we determined the method to validate forests according to both economic and environmental values. These contributed to the Decision No 380/QĐ-TTg dated 10/4/2008 promulgated by Prime Minister, and Decree 99/2010/NĐ-CP dated 24/9/2010 regarding Forest environment payment services.

We assessed the status of forest planting of some main species to produce forest products,, evaluated markets to export wood furniture and import raw materials,, assessed economic and environmental efficiency of 12 main forest species to provide saw logs,, evaluated the impact of existing policy on production plantation forestc, and recommended policy oriented to develop plantation forest for saw logs.

We also assessed the status of policy. Recommended solutions to problems include improving competence capacity of small and middle enterprises in production and consumption of tea and wood furniture in the context of open trade.

3.2. International cooperation 

In 2010 we collaborated in research, development and training with ACIAR, CARD, Tropenbos, AKECOP, CIFOR, JICA, JOBCA, SNV, WB, FAO and APFNET.

The main issues covered include: Optimal silviculture management of plantation forests,, management and control of forest pests and dieases,, selection and development of tropical Acacia hybrid,, using diverse genes and biotechnology in forest tree breeding improvement, validating forest plantation and mangrove forest,, land uses to mitigate deforestation and degraded forest,, integrated land uses in tropical rainforest area to decrease carbon concentration,, causes and impacts of forest degradation, criteria for classifying forest ecological zones, impacts and mitigation strategies for climate change, and demonstrating the forest rehabilitation in Vietnam. The international tasks have been well implemented and achieved great results, and have satified donor requirements. Particularly, the Action Plan for the Forestry Research strategy has been witten, and now waiting for approval from MARD.

We received more than 50 international experts/delegations, and organized 3 English classes as well as quite a number of scientific lectures, workshops and meetings. Currently, the institution has 12 PhD candidates studying in England, Holland, China, Australia, and Japan. It also has 3 master’s students studying in the United States, South Korea, and Australia.

3.3. Techniques services and commercial trade

We actively sought out contracts for scientific research, techniques services, and trade with other institutions and companies, increased the budget of 46.387 billion VND.

3.4. PhD training

In 2010, FSIV assessed 11 candidates for PhD training, and all candidates passed the review-test and were approved by MARD. FSIV has decided on 11 PhD candidates for the course 23/2010.

6 PhD candidates completed their research subjects, 3 PhD candidates sussessfully defended their research in basis comittees, 5 PhD candidates successfully defended their research in national/institutional comittees. In addition, 6 PhD candidates are preparing for defences in basis committees, and 1 PhD candidate is waiting for reviewers and preparing for a defence in the institutional committee.

18 staff of FSIV taught at other training institutions. The staff of FSIV successfully supervised 10 bachelors, 50 master students and 19 PhD candidates. Staff of FSIV also gave professional lectures for undergraduate students and postgraduate students in the Forestry University of Vietnam, Thai Nguyen Forestry Agriculture Univeristy, and Tay Nguyen University. FSIV staff also organized many short traing courses for researchers, workers, farmers in different fields. 

3.5.  Data and information 

FSIV published 5 volumes of journal of forest science.

FSIV published 5 books, 67 scientific articles in domestic jounals, 10 articles in international journals, 1 paper in an international conference, and 58 papers in domestic conferences. We also puplished a book “Proceedings of conference on forest science and technology with sustainable development and climate change,” and published the book “Techniques to plant several timber tree species.” In addtion, we published a leaflet to introduce FSIV.

3.6. General evaluation

3.6.1 Main achievements

In 2010, FSIV achieved the following results:

A project was developed to re-construct and impvore the institute into the Academy Institution. This project was approved by MARD, and is now waiting for approval from the Prime Minister.

115 science, technology and enviromental tasks were approved, with a combined budget of more than 35 billion VND. MARD approved 21 forestry tree varieties and 4 technical advance forest product preservation chemicals. Particularly, we published a book entitled “Guide to Planting 41 Popular Timber Tree Species”.

More than 135 contracts were implemented, on techniques transfer and trade with the budget of 46.387 billion VND.

We completed the construction of 3 Laboratories to promote research and production. In summary, FSIV is proud of our results in 2010. They serve as  a basis for a similar performance in the following period of 2011-2015, particularly to be a good basis for the implementation of the Decree 115 and re-structuring of the institution.

3.6.2. Weaknesses

Because the areas for carrying out activities were very large and the activites were various, the monitoring and evalutation of project implementaion was still limited.

The management within some units under FSIV was not so good, and again the monitoring and evalutation activities were not well implemented.

The number of science and technology tasks was large, but they did not equally distribute into every forest field, and there was a lack of research results that transferred into production.

PART IV: MOVING FORWARD TO IMPLEMENT TASKS IN 2011

Management of FSIV

In 2011, we should increase the management effectiveness of the instituion, and strengthen the management of the functional division, research divisions, centers and sub-institutes. We would also like to strengthen the collaboration between research divisions, centers and regional centers, increase implementation of introduced principles and regulations, revise and supplement principles and regulations if they are no longer suitable.

Personal organization

We plan to complete the project to re-construct and improve FSIV following comments from MARD and the Prime Minister, and develop the plan to re-constuct the units under FSIV. In addition, we will implement personnel planning and the regime following the current principles, as well asprepare for and commemorate the 50th anniversary of the eastablishment of FSIV.

 Plan of science and technology projects

We plan to: Develop new project proposals for funding and continue implementing the current projects in 2011;continue organizing scientific workshops, mid-term and final workshops for projects; organize the consultation workshop to comment on projects for 2011. We also aim to strengthen the consultation, monitoring and evaluation from FSIV, centers and research divisions to the activities process and results of projects,as well asincrease the quality of project implementation.

International cooperation

We plan to introduce the principle to manage and implement international tasks.  We would also like to strengthen our cooperation with international instituions and partner in research and development, and technology transfer, combine international collaboration with training of profession and language.

Staff training  

In 2011, we aim to strengthen the collaboration between FSIV and other research, education and traning institutions..    We would also like to develop the training of research staff, particularly for post-graduate training for research divisions, as well as strengthen monitoring and promote PhD candidates to implement projects and theses following the approved schedules, and improve the quality of theses.

Data and information   

We plan to strengthen the dissemination of FSIV, its activities and achievements. This will be accomplished through the following:    Improve the website with updated and useful information and research results from FSIV, and strengthen the e-database of plant resources and research results. Increase the quality and quantity of Forestry Science Journal. In collaboration with VTC16, introduce technical guidelines to create breeding, plant, process, preserve forest products for farmers. Publish papers to introduce the Institution and its achivement on the accasion of 50th anniversary of FSIV.

Financing

Improve knowledge and skills of staff, and attend more in monitoring and evaluation process of projects implememted at FSIV.  

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