Vietnam Journal of Forest Science Number 4-2009

1. PROPAGATION OF CHUKARASIA SPECIES BY TISSUE CULTURE

Doan Thi Mai, Nguyen Thi My Huong, Van Thu Huyen, Vu Thi Ngoc, Tran Thanh Huong

Research Centre for Forest Tree ImprovementForest Science Institute of Viet Nam

SUMMARY

Chukrasia is one of the most important commercial tree species in Vietnam. It is used for various purposes. Plant tissue culture can be applied to quickly propagate selected Chukrasia species. The suitable sterilization method is 1% HgCl2 for 15 minutes. The suitable medium for shoot formation is MWP with 1,0 mg/l BAP. The  rooting medium is 1/2MWP with 1,0mg/l IBA. Rooting directly by rooting powder (TTG1) is an effective method for Chukrasia.

Key words: Chukrasia, Propagation, Tissue culture. 

2. CUTTING PROPAGATION OF XANTHOCYPARIS VIETNAMENSIS FARJON & HIEP FOR GENETIC CONSERVATION

Nguyen Hoang Nghia and Tran Van Tien

Forest Science Institute of Vietnam

Summary

Xanthocyparis vietnamensis Farjon & Hiep is the only tree species of Xanthocyparis genus (Cuppressaceae) which occurs on limestone mountains with poor natural regeneration. Cutting propagation of the species is necessary for genetic conservation. Experiments of cutting propagation show that the species is easy to propagate by cuttings. Cuttings taken from mature trees without treatment gave a high rooting percentage (83.3%). Among five chemicals applied, four chemicals (RA, IBA, IAA, ABT1) gave higher rooting percentages by up to 16.7% as compared to the control. IBA and ABT1 gave the highest results. Some chemical treatment doses gave better root systems than the control.

Key words: Cutting propagation, Xanthocyparis vietnamensis

,3. EFFECT OF METHYLOBACTERIUM RADIOTOLERANS 1019 ON PLANT MORPHOLOGY

Kieu Phuong Nam, Do Thi Di Thien, Tran Minh Tuan, Bui Van Le

Faculty of Biology, Ho Chi Minh City National University – The University of Science

SUMMARY

Introduction of Methylobacterium radiotolerans 1019 into in vitro culture would change the process of morphological formation in plants: increase the ability of shoots forming from leaf tissue of Lycopersicum esculentum, Nicotiana tabacum and Saintpaulia ionatha on MS – cytokinin medium; inhibition of calluses forming in Chrysanthemum spp., Nicotiana tabacum; and stimulation of somatic embryos forming in Chrysanthemum spp. and calluses forming in Brassica oleracea var. botrytis. The bacterium had the effect of stimulating root formation on both Chrysanthemum spp. and Paulonia fortunei.

Key words: Methylobacterium, Morphology formation, Tissue culture

4. RESULTS OF AN ASSESSMENT OF MICHELIA MEDIOCRICS AND CINAMOMUM OBTUSIFOLIUM IN PLANTATION MODELS

Nguyen Đuc Kien, Ngo Van Chinh

Forest Tree Improvement Research Centre Forest Science Institute of Vietnam

SUMMARY

The objective of the study was to determine suitable plantation establishment methods for planting Michelia mediocris and Cinnamomum obtusifolium in Vietnam. The study was conducted in silvicultural trials and plantations of these species in Phu Tho, Thanh Hoa and Gia Lai provinces. The results showed non-significant differences in growth of the two species in pure stands and mixed stands either with other native species or Acacia mangiumC. obtusifolium had poor performance in the line-mixed stands with A. mangium or in individual-mixed stands with Lithocarpus fissus. In the band-mixed stand with A. mangium, growth of these species in bands of 20 m wide was significantly better than those in bands of 10 m wide. The findings from this study will contribute towards increasing knowledge for successful plantation development of these two species.

Key words: Michelia mediocris, Cinnamomum obtusifolium, Pure stand, Mixed-stand 

5. CHARCTERISTICS OF ECOLOGY AND PHENOLOGY OF AILANTHUS TRIPHYSA (DENNST) ALSTON IN PHU YEN AND BINH DINH PROVINCES

Pham Van Bon

Forest Science Sub-Institute South Vietnam

SUMMARY

Investigation results from Phu Yen and Binh Dinh provinces showed that Ailanthus triphysa is frequently distributed on gray brown soil, which developed from granite. The texture is light (light loam and sandy soil). Soil is acidic, with a poor nutrient level. The tree density tends to reduce if the hight above sea level increases, and it is mostly concentrated under 300m. A. triphysa is found in many secondary forests, roadsides, the edge of forests, milpa, or along streamsides. With poor regeneration, the density decrease if the canopy of forest increases. Flowering in March and April, ripe fruit in June and July. Additionally, they flower in other months, but the quantity of fruit is poor. Fruits are wingede, and are distributed via wind so it is essential to harvest them before they fall.

Key words: Ecology, Phenology, Ailanthus triphysa tree, Phu Yen and Binh Dinh provinces 

6. RESEARCH ON PLANTING PROBABILITY AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DIALIUM COCHINECHIENSIS PIERRE IN GIA LAI
Bui Thanh Hang, Ngo Van Cam

Silvicultural Techniques Research DivisionForest Science Institute of Vietnam

SUMMARY
Dialium cochinechiensis Pierre is a native forest tree species, its wood is highly economically  valuable, and is durable, red-brown in color, smooth, and water and termite resistant. The wood is used for many different purposes. Fruit can be used as traditional a medicine by soaking in alcohol. It is a non-timber forest product, being greatly used by local people in Gia Lai Province.
In mixed evergreen broadleaf forest of elevation zone of lower than 800m, Dialium cochinechiensis is considered to belonging to the “ecological species group”, accounted for 50% of stem abundance. This species prefers to be evenly distributed in natural forest, and fruits annually with a stable yield. The yield is dependant on climate conditions and its yielding cycle.
 

 Key words: Dialium cochinechiensis, Ecological characteristics, Planting probability

7. RESEARCH ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FRUIT MORPHOLOGY AND COLOR WITH SEED QUALITY OF CASTANOPSIS PIRIFPRMIS

Nguyen Toan Thang, Tran Lam Dong

Silvicultural Techniques Research Division Forest Science Institute of Vietnam

Luong Van Dung

Da Lat University

SUMMARY

Castanopsis piriformis is a native and multi-purpose species. Its wood is used for making furniture, and fruit is used for food as it has a high nutritional value. Fruit morphology is highly related to seed quality. Research on the relationship between fruit morphology and seed quality of Castanopsis piriformis is necessary to identify suitable times for harvesting seed, which will result in high quality seedlings. Experiments were carried out with three fruit morphologies as green color (unripe); brown color (ripe); and brown color with cracked fruit cover. Nursery qualities were evaluated based on seed dimension; seed uniformity; seed weight; germination rate; and relationship between fruit weight, seed weight and kernel. The result showed that fruit of Castanopsis piriformis should be harvested when it is ripe (brown color), which will result in high quality for nursery. At the moment, seed dimension 22,9 – 24,7 mm, seed thickness 17,1 – 17,9 mm, seed uniformity 84,1  – 87,1 %, seed weight 4.334,6 – 4.537,4 g and germination rate 78%.

Key words: Castanopsis piriformis, Fruit morphology, Seed quality. 

8. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS OF QUANTITATIVE BIODIVERSITY INDEX OF VEGETATION COVER SPECIES IN HUONG SON SPECIAL USE FOREST, MY DUC, HA TAY

Le Thanh Cong, Le Quoc Huy

Forest Biotechnology InstituteForest Science Institute of Vietnam

SUMMARY

Huong Son Special Use Forest is a potential resource for biodiversity conservation and eco-tourism. In this research, biodiversity richness of the area was audited using a quantitative approach. The biodiversity index used was: IVI, H, Cd, A/F. Fauna biodiversity was accessed by an observation method. In total, 28 sites were surveyed for flora biodiversity with 380 plant species and 178 species recorded. The H index of woody species was found to be high and stable, ranging from 3.83 to 5,50, while the H of bushes (2,88-5,20) and herbs (1,55-4,22) greatly varied due to the affect of invasive species. This quantitative biodiversity is important, is essential for recommending solutions to sustainable developmentKey words: Huong Son, Biodiversity, Index, H, IVI, Cd. 

9. ASSESSMENT RESULTS OF AGAR-WOOD FORMATION AND THE MARKET FOR AGAR-WOOD ESSENTIAL OIL CONSUMPTION

Le Van Thanh, Nguyen Huy Son

Forest Science Institute of Vietnam

SUMMARY 

This research aims to assess the ability to create agar-wood in Aquilaria crassna using different chemicals in production, and initially evaluating the market for agar-wood essential oil consumption. The survey results showed that currently Vietnam has quite a number of chemicals used for agar-wood formation. Through the analysis of the wood samples affected by various chemicals, the oil content tends to increase where the tree is affected by chemicals, and within a tree, the oil content is greater at the place where it is affected by the chemical. The market for agar-wood essential oil is large across the world, but the domestic units for producing and trading the essential oil are not able to access those markets, so that they have to trade through a middle man, and they have to accept lower prices. The domestic market is not so clear.   

10. ANTITERMITIC ACTIVITY OF SOME EXTRACTS FROM SEED KERNELS OF AZADIRACHTA EXCELSA JACOB

Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc, Nguyen Duy Vuong, Nguyen Thi Hang

Forest Product Preservation DivisionForest Science Institute of Vietnam

SUMMARY

Ethanol and some organic solvent extracts from the seed kernels of Azadirachta excelsa Jacob were used for the evaluation of antitermitic activity based on wood preservation standards (using Abbot’s equations) and testing on petri dishes  in the laboratory. The results of testing on termites calculated by Abbot’s equations indicate very good effects with most termiticide formulas selected. However, the smaller the mass of seed kernel used, the larger the numbers of wood samples damaged and wood samples are destroyed not only on sides but also at depth. The testing on petri dish showed that seed kernels contain chemical compounds which have antifeedant activity. Additionally, there are also some compounds which were toxic to termites in this experiment. The primary results add scientific information and improve research for a better understanding of toxicity mechanisms of compounds extracted from seed kernels of  Azadirachta excelsa Jacob     

Keywords: Antitermitic activity, Azadirachta excelsa Jacob, Testing, Coptotermes Formosanus Shiraki 

11. RESEARCH ON WOOD PRESERVATION FOR WOOD USED IN SHIP BUILDING 

Bui Van Ai, Le Bach Đang, Đinh Van Tien

Forest Product Preservation DivisionForest Science Institute of Vietnam

Summary

Wood used in ship building is often extensively damaged by Bankia. The results show that materials including Vatica odorata Spp. Brevipetiolata phmh, Hopea odorata Roxb, and Dipterocarpus costatus Gaert.f are destroyed by Bankia in a short period of time, and all testing samples were damaged in 12 months. Eucalyptus camaldulensis is also damaged by Bankia in six months. The ability of penetration of preservative XM5 by use of pressure of vacuum and hot-cold processes was determined ro four species of wood. Testing samples were penetrated solutions of XM5 in four concentrations (10, 15, 20, 25%) and evaluated over a period of three years. The results showed that all wood samples might limit destruction by Bankia. If penetration of XM5 is more than 6 Kg/m3, the resistance to Bankia of wood is good. The results of this research are scientific evidence for building technical options to protect wood without damage by Bankia.

Keywords: Bankia, ¦Wood preservation, Preservative XM5 

12. PRODUCING E. UROPHYLLA SAWNBOARD FOR FURNITURE MAKING

Nguyen Quang Trung

Forest Industry Research and Technology Transfer Centre

Forest Science Institute of Vietnam

SUMMARY

E. urophylla timber is a potential wood resource but its utilization as a sawn timber material for furniture making is limited. Although E. urophylla woods physical and mechanical properties are similar to Acacia species and some other natural forest species the utilization of E. urophylla timber for furniture making is limited because of the deformation of E. urophylla wood during processing: including end splitting; spring; bow; and shrinkage. To reduce the deformation and defects of E. urophylla timber products, the solution of wood moisture control was applied in this research.The changing of wood moisture was implemented by controlling environmental humidity in each step of processing, such as: logging; logs storing; sawing; air drying; and kiln drying. The product quality and wood use effectiveness were improved significantly. E. uropyilla wood is stable with finishing material and good gluing. Furniture products made of E. urophylla wood have nice grain and coloring.

Key words: E.urophylla; Sawn timber. 

13. RESEARCH ON DETERMINING PROCESSING SUPERFLUOUSNESS OF MELALEUCA CAJUPUTY SAW TIMBER KILN DRYING

Bui Duy Ngoc

Forest Products Research DivisionForest Science Institute of  Viet Nam

Summary

Melaleuca cajuputi saw timber is potential material in the Mekong Delta. However, this wood has not been utilized as a material for the wood product processing industry, with most of the Melaleuca cajuputi saw logs being made into “cu” (a type of pole is used for building), fuel, coal, etc. In recent years,  Melaleuca cajuputi wood has been exported to other countries to make paper.   The rate of Melaleuca cajuputi wood which is utilized as sawn timber was quite low in comparison with the rate of exploitation each year. To enhance the  Melaleuca cajuputi wood value, research on diversifying industrial products made from  Melaleuca cajuputi wood such as Particle board, MDF, Furniture, Laminated board.etc. are encouraging.After kiln drying,  Melaleuca cajuputi saw timber is distorted, and the deformation rate is quite high, so superfluousness of kiln drying process (SKDP) is high.  Therefor determining the SKDP of  Melaleuca cajuputi sawn timber is necessary for calculating sawn timber processes before drying.The results of determining SKDP of  Melaleuca cajuputi sawn timber show that according to different saw methods  the Melaleuca cajuputi saw timber was highlydeformed (more than 10%). In Comparison with other  wood plantation species, SKDP of  Melaleuca cajuputi sawn timber was twice as high as that of Acacia sawn timber.

Key words: Superfluousness of kiln drying process, Melaleuca cajuputi saw timber 

14. WOOD ANTOMY OF DALBERGIA TONKINENSIS PRAIN

Do Van Ban, Nguyen Quang Hung, Nguyen Hao Hiep

Forest Plant Resource Research Division

Forest Science Institute of Vietnam

SUMMARY

The tree species Sua (Dalbergia tonkinensis) is a rare and valuable wood species with a high economical value. The wood is heavy, hard, beautiful and has a distinct aroma when fresh. The wood is diffuse – porous, ring – porous and semi – ring porous. The vessels of two distinct sizes are filled with a red-brown to gold-brown deposit. The rays are small and stored. The crystal is found in axial parenchyma. The wood structure of Sua has some features different to these of Trac (Dalbergia cochinchinensis) and Cam lai (Dalbergia oliveri)

Key words: Wood anatomy, Wood of Sua, Dalbergia tonkinensis 

15. THE CURRENT SITUATION AND POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS FOR FORESTRY DEVELOPMENT IN DAKLAK PROVINCE

Bui Thi Hai Nhung

Forest Economics Research Division

Forest Science Institute of Vietnam

Summary

Evaluation results on forestry encouragement in Daklak province revealed that despite having achieved good results, forest cover across the whole province is 47.2% but by many different causes the area of forests in Daklac continue to be declining in quality.  Natural forests continue to be invaded, plantation growth is fast but slow growth of the production of improved seeds Forest allocation, delays in forest rent implementation, and the renewal of state-owned forestry farms still encounters obstacles. Although the situation is strengthened, forest exploitation by illegal deforestation is serious, there is poor coordination between agencies in forest protection laws and there has been slow development of regular ecological tourist activities. The processing industry is relatively developed, with an export turnover reaching 6 to 7.5 million per year, and with 438 forest product processing facilities. Forestry extension work is not considered important. From these situation studies, six solutions to develop forestry in Daklak are recommended. Besides specific solutions, urgent and immediate proposals to redress and implement effective protection and development of forests in Daklak over the future have been given.

Keywords: Forestry development strategy, Forest product processing, Daklak, Forest development, Forest protection, Forestry extension 

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