Vietnam Journal of Forest Science Number 3-2009

1. RESEARCH RESULTS FROM INTENSIVE PLANTING OF EUCALYPTUS AT THE NORTH-EASTERN VIETNAM FOREST SCIENCE AND PRODUCTION CENTRE

Le Minh  Cuong

North Eastern Vietnam Forest Scientific and Production Center

Forest Science Institute of Vietnam

SUMMARY

For plantation forests to attain high productivity and economic effectiveness, they require not only good varieties, but also appropriate intensive planting methods. Models of intensive planting of clones U6 and PN2 were established at the North-eastern Vietnam Forest Science and Production Centre in 2000, which included three site preparation treatments, and five fertilizer treatments. After 8 years, the results show that the plantation productivity of mechanical site preparation is 122.6-144.2% higher than that of site preparation by hand, and the annual growth rate is 22-24m3/ha/year. The cost for mechanical site preparation is more expensive (4,206,000 VND) than site preparation by hand, but the interest on this at the end of the rotation is 8,264,000 VND, higher than that of site preparation by hand. The combination of mechanical site preparation and fertilizing greatly increases the productivity of planting. The treatment of mechanical site preparation (ripping 50 cm in depth, spacing of lines is 2 m, digging holes of 30 x 30 x 30 cm a long the line), and fertilizing with 200 g of NPK, and 1 kg of muck is the best: the annual growth rate is 28-30 m3/ha/year, and the volume of the plantation at the end of the cycle is 220-235 m3/ha. The economic productivity is also highest, as the interest could reach 25,000,000 VND after a rotation of 8 years.  

Keywords: Eucalyptus clone U6 and PN2, Intensive planting, Site preparation, Fertilizing 

2. RESEARCH ON THE GROWTH OF THREE YEAR OLD TRIALS OF EUCALYPTUS SPECIES E. CAMALDULENSIS, E. PELLITA, AND ACACIA SPECIES A. CRASSICARPA, A. AULACOCARPA IN EXPERIMENTATION STATION, GIA LAI PROVINCE

Nguyen Danh

Resource and Environment Department, Gia Lai province 

SUMMARY

Eucalyptus and Acacia are two exotic and fast growing species. Among them E. camaldulensis, E. pellita, A. crassicarpa and A. aulacocarpa are planted in large areas. In order to supply pulp wood and for protecting soil fertility mixed forests of these species are necessary. Mixed forests of Acacia and Eucalyptus are suitable to plans on in poor forest lands after shifting cultivation.  

Keywords: Eucalyptus, Acacia, mixed forest planting. 

3. RESEARCH ON FOREST VEGETATION COVER CHANGES IN BACH MA NATIONAL PARK

Dang Ngoc Quoc Hung

Bach Ma National Park, Thua Thien-Hue

SUMMARY

Forest vegetation cover plays an important role in regulating water resources, flood reduction, drought and erosion control. In addition, it plays an important role in special-use forest through conservation of ecological standard forms, and rare and valuable fauna and flora. Changes in forest vegetation cover can be one reason for the loss of these values through either human or natural impacts. Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing technology was applied to monitor and evaluate changes to forest vegetation cover in the new extended area of Bach Ma National Park at Nam Dong district, Thua Thien Hue province in 1989, 2001, 2004 and 2007. Use of this technology helped the Bach Ma National Park Management Board to gain information on vegetation changes in the new extended area and will form a key contribution to developing a solution to conserving this area of forest.

Keywords: Forest vegetation cover, Bach Ma 

4. TESTING SURVEY METHODS FOR REGENERATION OF NATURAL FOREST 

Do Thi Ngoc Le

Vietnam Forestry University

SUMMARY

This paper represents the results of testing several methods to survey regeneration of natural forest based on data analysis of six samples with six different survey methods. The research results show that the regeneration survey methods produced different data about the species composition of regeneration as well as seedling density, origin, quality, and distribution. We determined two methods (method with 5 sub-sample plots (25m2 per plot) and range method) based on error between the regeneration parameters

Keywords:  Natural forest, Regeneration survey methods, Regeneration.

5. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF INVESTIGATION INTO MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY THAI MINORITY AT THACH GIAM COMMUNE, TUONG DUONG DICTRICT, NGHE AN PROVINCE 

Lu Thi Ngan,  Nguyen Nghia Thin  

Faculty of Biology, College of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Vietnam

SUMMARY

In this paper, traditional plants used by Thai minority people at the Thach Giam commune, Tuong Duong district, Nghe An Province were investigated, collected, identified and listed. It was found that 231 species, 192 genera, and 88 families of 4 divisions of the higher plants were used. Of these, species of the Angiosperms are dominant representing 93.16% of the total, followed by Polypodiophyta with 4.54%, Lycopodiophyta at 1.14%, and the Equisetophyta at 1.14%. The life-forms of these species are diverse including herbs -31.16%, trees – 27.7%,  shrubs – 23.8%, and lianas – 17.31%. They live mainly in mountain forests – 46.75%, and gardens – 42.86%. The inventory found that 15 groups of diseases were cured by the local people, of which four groups used the largest number of species: digestion, skin, fever and lung diseases. Parts of plant species used by the Thai people vary: one part of plant used occupies 36.39% of total species, two parts used – 29.79%, and three parts used 21.55%. Of these parts, leaves are the most common part used: 53.25%, then roots: 43.72% and stems: 32.03%. Thirty nine remedies used for curing 15 groups of diseases are also investigated and listed. Keywords: Thai minority, Medicinal plants, Diseases, Thach Giam, Tuong Duong, Nghe An. 

6. MICHELIA VELUTINAM CANDOLLE (MAGNOLIACEAE), A NEW RECORD FOR FLORA OF VIETNAMVu Quang Nam1,2,3, Xia Nianhe2 (1. Vietnam Forestry University, Hanoi, Vietnam2. South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences,  Guangzhou 510650, China3. Graduate University, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China)

SUMMARY

Michelia velutina Candolle is a well-known species along the Himalayan countries of Bhutan, Northeast India, Nepal, China (Yunnan and Xizang), and Vietnam. This species has its natural distribution in the high mountains at 1500-2400 m altitude in mixed forests, with yearly flowering time of May-June and fruiting time of August-September. The specimens with collection numbers of TQ 2984 and Petelot 6.454 were collected in Hoang Lien National Park (Sa Pa district, Lao Cai province of Vietnam) and deposited in the herbaria of the Hanoi Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources (HN) and the Ho Chi Minh Institute of Tropical Biology (VNM). Based mainly on morphological characteristics of leaves, flowers and fruits, together with a comparison with the types specimens of Wallich 6493 (K, holotype), Rock 6919 (NY, isotype) and authenticated specimens of Michelia velutina of M.K. Li 0041, 0059; No-14538 (IBSC), this species is confirmed as a new record of the genus Michelia for flora of Vietnam. It has some unique characteristics such as: leaf blade narrowly elliptic to elliptic; dense gray long tomentose beneath; young parts also have dense gray or yellowish long tomentose; gynoecium are ovoid-oblong to narrowly ovoid, longer than the androecium with dense pubescent gynophore. It is proposed that the Vietnamese name be “Giæi Sapa” to indicate the locality where this species was first collected in Vietnam. Within this new record of Michelia velutina Candolle, the total number of the genus Michelia in Vietnam is raised to be about. twenty species.          

Keywords: Gioi Sapa, Michelia velutina DC., Michelia, New species, Vietnam 

7. ANALYSIS OF THE GENETIC DIVERSITY OF MICHELIA BAILLONII (PIERRE) FIN et GAGNEP. BY RAPD AND cpSSR MARKERS

Nguyen Hoang Nghia

Forest Science Institute of Vietnam

Nguyen Đuc Thanh, Le Thi Bich Thuy

Biotechnology Institute

SUMMARY

Michelia baillonii (Pierre) Fin. et Gagnep. is a species of Magnoliaceae which has its natural distribution in south China, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam. Some provenances of the species were introduced for trials and evaluation of genetic their diversity is necessary. Twenty-three (23) leaf samples collected from different provenances (three from China and one from Vietnam) of Michelia baillonii and three samples of Michelia mediocris were genetically analyzed by RAPD and cpSSR markers. Analysis has shown clear differences between provenances within Michelia baillonii and between the two Michelia species. Genetic similarity between provenances was only 30% and they divided into four groups with a difference of 45% in genetic relationship. Group No.1 includes samples from Puwen (I) and Jiangcheng (II) and these two provenances also divided into two separate subgroups. Group No.2 includes samples from Da Lat and Phu Tho provenances but they also divided into two separate subgroups. Group No.3 includes samples from Menghai provenance (III) while Group No.4 includes samples from Jinghong provenance (IV). The cpSSR maker used in molecular analysis did not give polymorphic DNA bands. This means that the genetic content in chloroplast DNA of Michelia baillonii is highly conservative. Therefore the introduction of provenances from China into trials and planting in Vietnam can increase the genetic diversity of the species. 

Keywords: Michelia baillonii (Pierre) Fin. et Gagnep., Genetic diversity, cpSSR, RAPD. 

8. DETERMINE PLANTING REGION A. MANGIUM x A. AURICULIFORMIS WITH THE PURPOSE OF SUPPLYING BIG-SIZED TIMBER IN THE NORTH CENTRAL COAST OF VIETNAM

Nguyen Thanh Son

Silvicultural Techniques Research Division

Dang Van Thuyet

Scientific Planning DivisionForest Science Institute of Vietnam

Summary

The objective of this research is to identify the suitable planting region A.mangium x A. auriculiformis with the purpose of supplying big-sized timber in the North Central Coast of Vietnam. Groups of factors have been considered in order to determine the planting region for A.mangium x A. auriculiformis including the climate, soil and topography that is suitable with the ecological character of the species. In the entire North Central Coast of Vietnam, the most suitable planting area accounts for 1.070.391ha (20,8%) the less suitable planting area is 1.155.559ha (22.5%) and the worse suitable planting area is 2.907.367ha (56,6%).

Key words: Determining the planting region, A.mangium x A. Auriculiformis, the North Central Coast of Vietnam. 

9. INFLUENCE OF MOLYPDEN, GIBBERELLINE GA3 TO SEED GERMIATION AND NAA TO CUTTING ABILITY OF HOPEA ODORATA ROXB. 

Bui Trung

A Luoi High School, Thua Thien-Hue Province 

SUMMARY     

Research on Hopea odorata Roxb. in A Luoi (Thua Thien – Hue province) showed that the germination rate after 45 days is 91,11% when seeds are pretreated using molypden salt at a concentration of 1000 =ppm for 5 hours, while the control have a rate of only 43,33%, and in other concentration and times the results vary from 41,11 – 78,89%. Seedling survival after 60 days at this concentration and length of treatment is also highest (90%). Highest germination of Hopea odorata Roxb. seed germination treated by GA3 40 ppm for 1 hour is only 70%, lower than when treated by molypden salt.    

Rooting percentage of Hopea odorata Roxb. twigs of 1 year old seedlings treated by NAA 1000 ppm for 10 – 15 seconds is 91,11 – 94,44%. With this treatment root number and root length of cuttings are not worse than the control and treatment in other concentrations and times.          

Keywords: Hopea odorata, Seed germination, Cutting propagation.     

10. THE IDENTIFICATION OF DISSOLVING  PHOSPHATE MICROORGANISMS AND DISEASE RESISTANT BACTERIA TO EUCALYPTUS AND PINUS BY MOLECULAR TECHNIQUE

Tran Thanh Trang

Forest Protection Research DivisionForest Science Institute of Vietnam 

SUMMARY

Three dissolving phosphate microorganisms (PGL1.1, PGL1.4 and PGLrh3), one Cryptosporiopsis eucalypti disease resistant bacterial clone (BD7) to Eucalyptus and one Fusarium oxysporium disease resistant bacterial clone (NTXO2) to Pinus collected from different parts of Northern Vietnam were identified by molecular technique based on 16S ribosomal DNA.  Clones PGL1.1 and PGL1.4 were identified as Burkholderia cenocepacia, and clones BD7 and NTXO2 were identified as Bacillus subtilis with the high confidences, up to 100% homogeneousness. Clone PGLrh3 was grouped with two species of Burkholderia tropicalis and Burkholderia tropica with the similar homogenous of 98.5%. This might be a new species belonging to genus Burkholderia. Clones BD7 and NTXO2, disease resistance to Eucalyptus and Pinus and clone PGLrh3 are useful in producing complex-bacteria biofertilizer applied to plants. 

 Keywords: Phosphate dissolving microorganisms, Disease resistant bacteria, Molecular identification.  

11. ISOLATING AND SCREENING HIGH ACTIVE DISSOLVING PHOSPHATE MICROORGANISMS AND STUDYING ITS BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC FOR PRODUCING BIOFERTILIZER FOR FOREST TREES

Nguyen Thi Thuy Nga, Pham Quang Thu

Forest Protection Research DivisionForest Science Institute of Vietnam

SUMMARY

In forest production, phosphate fertilizer is usually applied to soil in order to improve the productivity of trees. However after a while the soluble phosphate fertilizer tends to become insoluble which leads to the difficulty of plants’ absorbability. Using soil live-in bacteria which could dissolve insoluble phosphate into soluble phosphate is useful for the economy, ecology and environment. Thirty bacterial dissolving phosphate clones isolated from 30 forestry soil samples were collected in northern provinces of Vietnam, of which fifteen clones, accounting for 50 per cent of total isolated clones, have very high activity. Clones PGLRH3, P9.2, P1.4 and P1.1 have the highest diameters of dissolving phosphate zone (>22cm). The results of quantative analysis also shows that clone PGLRH3 has the highest ability of dissolving phosphate, up to 497.62ppmP, 12 fold of control clone, followed by clones P1.4 and P1.1 which transfer phosphate of more than 420ppmP. Clones P1.1, P1.4 and PGLRH3 were identified in which P1.1 and P1.4 are Burkholderia cenocepacia and PGLRH3 is Burkholderia tropicalis.  Clones P1.1, P1.4 and PGLRH3 grow and develop very well in the medium containing potato extract and added mineral components. Clones P1.1 and P1.4 produce the highest effective bacteria population density after culturing for 4 days and shaking at 150 rpm. Similarly, clone PGLRH3 produces the highest population density after culturing for 5 days and shaking at 200 rpm. These three clones can be applied to produce complex-bacteria biofertilizer in order to stimulate the growth of forest trees.  

Keywords: Isolating, Screening, High active dissolving phosphate microorganisms. 

12. BUG DAMAGE YOUNG LEAVE OF MICHELIA BAILLONII (PIERRE) FINET & GAGNEPAIN IN HOANH BO, QUANG NINH

Dao Ngoc Quang, Le Van Binh

Forest Science Institute of Vietnam

SUMMARY

Bug attacks young leaf of one-year-old Michelia baillonii (Pierre) Finet and Gagnepain plantation in Hoanh Bo district, Quang Ninh province was identified as Anoplocnemis castanea Dallas, it belonging to Coreidae family, Hemiptera order. This insect pest is described for the first time in Vietnam on Michelia baillonii. The adults are black colour and vary considerably in size. The female is usually larger than the male varying from 29-32mm in length, 8-11mm in width and 27-30cm in length, 5-7mm in width, respectively. The antenna is string-shaped, having 4 sedments are in black colour except distal segment is in red colour. All four eyes (including 2 compound and 2 simple eyes) are in black. The femur in hindleg is very big comparing with fore and midle leg, the tarsus consist of three segments. Damage severity of this insect pest on Michelia baillonii in last year is very high and increasing from April to June. Both immature and mate stage are suck young leaf. The adults usually lay eggs on lower surface leaf. Treatment of chemical insecticides results in laboratory showed that Ofatox 400EC (0.2%) and Diptecide 90WP (0.2%) were the best insecticide with 100% of mortality after 10h appplying.

Keywords: Anoplocnemis castanea, Michelia baillonii, young leave. 

13. INITIAL RESULTS OF RESEARCH ON NEOHOUZEANA DULLOA CULM PRESERVATION AS A RAW MATERIAL IN FINE HANDICRAFT COMMODITIES PRODUCTION

Nguyen Van Duc, Le Bach Dang, Dinh Van Tien, Nguyen Thi Hang

Forest Science Institute of  Vietnam

SUMMARY

Neohouzeana dulloa culms have many uses. With N. dulloa culms as the raw material handicraft workers cleverly produce various fine handicraft commodities for both national consumption and export. Current treatment requires the culms to be submerged in water for 3-4 months causing environmental pollution in ponds and lakes. Initial research results of preservation of N. dulloa as a raw material guarantee the products quality, and reduce treatment time. Only 7-10 days are required to treat the culms, contributing to reduced environmental pollution in handicraft villages.

Keywords: Preservation, Neohouzeana dulloa culms, Fine handicraft commodities, LN5,  XM5    

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